Some part of your thesis writing and this specialty
Observation is a systematic purposeful, specially organized perception of objects and phenomena of objective reality that act as objects of research. As a method of scientific knowledge, observation makes it possible to obtain primary information in the form of a set of empirical statements. The empirical totality becomes the basis for the preliminary schematization of reality objects, making them the original objects of scientific research.
Pedagogical observation can be carried out in natural and experimental conditions. Observations under experimental conditions are deeper in terms of the completeness of the study of a phenomenon or process. To achieve its goal surveillance must meet the following requirements:
– premeditation (observation is carried out to solve a certain clearly defined task);
– planning (occurs according to a plan drawn up in accordance with the purpose of observation);
– purposefulness (only those aspects of the phenomenon that interest the researcher are observed);
– activity (the researcher actively searches for the necessary objects and phenomena);
– systematic (monitoring is carried out continuously or according to a certain system).
An important condition for scientific research should be its objectivity, that is, the possibility of control by either repeated observation or the use of other research methods (for example, experiment).
In the next observation, an important role is played by previous knowledge, hypotheses, available devices, the idea and methodological experience of the researcher.
Comparison is the process of comparing objects or phenomena of reality in order to establish similarities or differences between them, as well as to find commonalities that may be inherent in two or more objects of research. The comparison method will be fruitful if the following requirements are met when applying it:
– only such phenomena can be compared, between which there may be a certain objective commonality;
– comparison should be carried out according to the most important, essential (in terms of a specific task) characteristics.
There are two ways to get information about an object using comparison:
– direct comparison (primary information);
– processing of Primary Data (secondary or derived information).
Measurement is a cognitive procedure that involves determining the numerical value of a certain quantity using a unit of measurement. Measurement is based on comparing the same personality traits or qualities.
An experiment is a method of studying an object when the researcher actively and purposefully influences it by creating artificial conditions or applying the usual conditions necessary to identify the corresponding properties.
From a methodological point of view, the experiment involves the transition of the researcher from a passive to an active mode of activity.
The experiment is carried out in the following cases:
– if necessary, find previously unknown properties or qualities in the subject;
– when checking the correctness of theoretical constructions;
– when demonstrating a phenomenon or process.
According to the conditions of conducting, a laboratory and natural experiment are distinguished. A laboratory experiment is conducted in artificial conditions, where the experimenter has the opportunity to select parameters appropriately, artificially create conditions that would ensure the scientific purity of the experiment and optimal progress of the researcher to the truth. The laboratory experiment allows you to control the conditions that affect the course of the studied processes and accurately take into account the results of these effects. A natural experiment is carried out in ordinary, “natural “conditions, in which the course of the studied processes or phenomena occurs.
Deduction (from Latin-inference) is a conclusion in which the conclusion about a certain element of the set is made on the basis of knowledge about the general properties of the entire set. Any conclusion at all is considered deductive.
Modeling is an indirect, indirect method of scientific research of subjects of knowledge (the direct study of which is impossible, difficult or impractical), which is based on the use of the model as a means of research. The essence of modeling is to replace the subject under study with another one specially created for this purpose.